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Horizontaal 
Decibels: audio and RF related topics
related topics: Acoustics, Antennas, Logarithms and exponentials part of mathematics 
Bels,
decibels en dB pdf file,
in Dutch 
Characteristics of Sound and the Decibel Scale 
Characteristics of Sound and the Decibel Scale 
Commonmode
rejection ratio Commonmode rejection ratio (CMRR) is a measure of the
capability of an instrument, such as an operational amplifier, to reject a
signal that is common to both input leads 
dBi 
Decibel: définition et usage en Français 
Decibel pdf file 
Decibel
the Decibel Scale, acoustics, sound intensity 
Decibel
calculator excel file 
Decibel
Handout
Bel, dB, dBmV, dBm, dBµV, dBµW, dBµWatt, pdf file 
Decibel
in communications the dB value is calculated with respect to a standard or
specified reference 
Decibels decibels, dB,
what are Decibels, Decibels explained, pdf file 
Decibels decibels, dB,
what are Decibels, Decibels explained 
Decibels
what is a Decibel 
Decibels
what is a Decibel 
Decibels The
decibel (dB) is a measure of the ratio between two quantities, and is used in a
wide variety of measurements in acoustics, physics and electronics, ... 
Decibels
what are the different types of decibel measurement: dB, dBA, dBC, dBV, dBm and
dBi? 
Decibels
dBi, dBd, dBm, dBmV, Decibels related to dipole
antenna, ..., pdf file 
Decibels decibels, dB,
dBF, decibels referred to 1 femtowatt, dBk the signal level in DECIBELS referred to 1,000 watts, dBm
decibels referred to 1 milliwatt, dBm signal
level in DECIBELS referred to 1 microwatt, dBV decibels referred to 1 volt RMS,
dBW decibels referred to 1 WATT, SignaltoNoise ratio, dynamic range of a
sound, sound pressure, sound pressure level 
Decibels and power The sensitivity tells you how loud a sound you'll get out
of the speaker when you put a given amount of electrical power in, HiFi power
amplifiers, loudspeakers 
Decibels and their use in radio systems understanding Decibels and their use in radio systems, dBi,
dBd, EIRP, This article discusses the basic unit of measurement used in radio
signals: the decibel or dB. It is named after Alexander Graham Bell  that is
why the “B” is capitalized, pdf file 
Decibels in radio systems
dB (Decibel), dBm (dB milliWatt), dBd (dB dipole), dBi (dB isotropic), EIRP
(Effective Isotopic Radiated Power), FSL (Free Space Loss) 
Decibel Scales: Sound Pressure
Level and Sound Intensity Level The most physically understandable quantity
used in determining the size of a sound signal is the Pressure Amplitude.
Pressure amplitude is a measure of the size of the variation in air pressure
caused by a sound wave, ... 
Decibels
demystified 
Decibel levels chart
Decibel levels chart 
Decibel levels chart
Decibel (Loudness) Comparison Chart 
Decibels 
Decibels: what is the difference between dB, dBi, dBu, dBm, dBuV, and other units?
dBi = dBd + 2.15, i: isotropic antenna, d: halfwavelength dipole 
Equal loudness tester
This site allows you to measure equal loudness curvesthe frequency response of
your own ears, loudness 
Geluid en decibel in
Dutch 
Intensity and the decibel scale
Sound Properties and Their Perception
Intensity and the Decibel Scale 
Le DECIBEL en ELECTRONIQUE en Français 
Linear and Logarithmic Amplitude Scales
Linear Amplitude Scaling,
Logarithmic Amplitude Scaling, The Decibel, dB Values vs. Amplitude, Level
Ratios, Unit Conversions, VdB Levels vs. Vibration Levels in ips 
Power Conversions Power
Conversions chart, pdf file 
Pressure Amplitude:
Quantitative Measurement of Sound 
RF Calculator
Radio and RF units conversion/JavaScript application,
Conversion calculator from Watt to dBm and from dBm to Watt, ...,
a tip 
The dB in Communications
The dB in Communications systems, The db (decibel) is a relative unit of
measurement commonly used in communications for providing a reference for input
and output levels 
The Decibel Unit of Measurement Voltage, power, [or current] gain can be
expressed as a pure ratio or as a decibel value. The original unit was the Bel,
named after Alexander Graham Bell, and was used in telephone work, ..., pdf file 
UNDERSTANDING AND USING
THE DECIBEL The decibel, or dB, is a means of expressing the gain of an
active device (such as an amplifier) or the loss in a passive device (such as an
attenuator or length of cable), ... 
Understanding dB
dB is an abbreviation for "decibel". One decibel is one tenth of a Bel, named
for Alexander Graham Bell, ..., dBFS  dB Full Scale, dB SPL, sound pressure
level, AWeighting dB(A), Relationship between Frequency and Level, 
Understanding dB
scale ppt file 
What is a Decibel
And what are the different types of decibel measurement: dB, dBA, dBC, dBV, dBm
and dBi? How are they related to loudness? 
What is a decibel the dB is a logarithmic unit used to describe a ratio. The
ratio may be power, sound pressure, voltage or intensity 
Working with decibels  a tutorial 
Horizontaal 



Unit 
General electronics 
CMRR (dB) 
CMRR = 20 log A_{d}/A_{s} 
dBu or dBv 
voltage referenced to 0.775 volt, RMS value, not related to any impedance, u
stands for unterminated, audio equipment: input level is +4 dBu, which
corresponds to 1.23 volts RMS value 
dBm or dBmW 
power measurement relative to 1 milliwatt,
dBm = 10 log P/P_{O};
when impedances are equal 
dBm(75) 
power measurement relative to 1 milliwatt, measured with respect to a 75Ω load,
RF systems, cable television 
dBm(600) 
power measurement relative to 1 milliwatt, measured with respect to a 600Ω load,
telephony line impedance, 0 dBm corresponds to 0.775 volt, RMS value 
dBm(50) 
power measurement relative to 1 milliwatt, measured with respect to a 50 ohm
load 
dBV 
RMS voltage of a signal in a wire, relative to 1 volt, not related to any
impedance 
dBmV 
relative to 1 mV across a given impedance, RMS voltage 
dBW 
power amplification relative to 1 watt, 50Ω load, RF power amplifiers 



Acoustics 
dB(SPL) 
sound pressure level, relative to 20 micropascals (P_{O}) or 20 mN/m2, 1kHz, the quietest sound
a human can hear,
dB(SPL) = 20 log P/P_{O} 
IdB 
sound intensity relative to a standard threshold of hearing intensity I_{o}:
I_{o} = 10^{12} watts/m^{2}; IdB =
10 log I/I_{O} 



RF Communications 
dBc 
power of one signal referenced to a carrier signal 
dBd 
gain of an antenna compared to a dipole antenna 
dBf 
referred to 1 femtowatt, signal levels at the RF inputs of FM tuners 
dBk (dB) 
referred to 1000 watts, used in radio and television transmitting stations 
dBi 
gain of an antenna compared to an isotropic antenna, mostly used for antennas
above 1 GHz, dBi = dBd + 2.15 
dBu (dBµV/m) 
electric field intensity: microvolt/meter 
dBmV 
RF level relative to 1 mV 

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